By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and those of tribune and censor.It took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule.When he had recovered, he sailed to the front, but was shipwrecked; after coming ashore with a handful of companions, he crossed hostile territory to Caesar's camp, which impressed his great-uncle considerably. On 15 March 44 BC, Octavius's adoptive father Julius Caesar was assassinated by a conspiracy led by Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. Octavius was studying and undergoing military training in Apollonia, Illyria, when Julius Caesar was killed on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC.He rejected the advice of some army officers to take refuge with the troops in Macedonia and sailed to Italy to ascertain whether he had any potential political fortunes or security.His father, also named Gaius Octavius, had been governor of Macedonia.Philippus claimed descent from Alexander the Great, and was elected consul in 56 BC.Upon his adoption, Octavius assumed his great-uncle's name Gaius Julius Caesar.
A later senatorial investigation into the disappearance of the public funds took no action against Octavian, since he subsequently used that money to raise troops against the Senate's arch enemy Mark Antony.The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members.Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, and Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by Octavian in 31 BC.Julia died in 52 or 51 BC, and Octavius delivered the funeral oration for his grandmother.In 46 BC, she consented for him to join Caesar in Hispania, where he planned to fight the forces of Pompey, Caesar's late enemy, but Octavius fell ill and was unable to travel.He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, and rebuilt much of the city during his reign. He probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him.He was succeeded as Emperor by his adopted son (also stepson and former son-in-law) Tiberius.The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana (The Roman Peace).The Roman world was largely free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and the year-long civil war known as the "Year of the Four Emperors" over the imperial succession.Philippus never had much of an interest in young Octavius.Because of this, Octavius was raised by his grandmother, Julia, the sister of Julius Caesar.