Whether it walked upright is not known because only a single skull, jaw fragments, and teeth have been found.
Bipedalism may have been established in the six-million-year-old is primitive in most if not all of its body except for femurs (thighbones) that appear to share traits of bipedalism with modern humans.
For example, the earliest species, , is humanlike in having small canine teeth and a face that does not project very far.
However, in most other respects, including brain size, it is apelike.
Its skull is primitive in having a crest and a strongly projecting (prognathic) lower face.
The brain was about one-third the size of a modern human’s.
In addition, the ankle and knee are specialized for upright walking.
Other skeletal features are very much like those of later hominins.
Interestingly, ; most conspicuous is a thickening of tooth enamel that becomes characteristic of all later hominins.The dentition is also mostly primitive, with canines that shear against the lower premolars and a gap (diastema) between the upper incisors and canines.There are, however, some dental features in common with later hominins.Perhaps the most famous specimen of Identifying the earliest member of the human tribe (Hominini) is difficult because the predecessors of modern humans are increasingly apelike as the fossil record is followed back through time.They resemble what would be expected in the common ancestor of humans and apes in that they possess a mix of human and ape traits. Beaumont’s Excavation 1 at Wonderwerk Cave, Northern Cape Province, South Africa, provides a unique stratified sequence covering a large part of the Earlier Stone Age.A combination of cosmogenic burial age and paleomagnetic age dating provides limited chronometric constraint on this sequence.All fieldwork has taken place under permit from the South African Heritage Resources Agency, and work on the collection is under the terms of agreement with the Mc Gregor Museum.The analysis of stone tools builds on the contributions of the members of the Wonderwerk Research Project and the results of the excavations by Peter Beaumont. Alexandra Sumner assisted with the analysis of flakes and Liora Horwitz, Paul Goldberg, and two reviewers provided valuable feedback on an initial draft of this article.lived during the Pliocene (5.3 to 2.6 million years ago) and Pleistocene (2.6 million to 11,700 years ago) epochs.As characterized by the fossil evidence, they bore a combination of human- and apelike traits.