Hedges used to separate a road from adjoining fields or one field from another, and of sufficient age to incorporate larger trees, are known as hedgerows.Often they serve as windbreaks to improve conditions for the adjacent crops, as in bocage country.The authors would like to thank Paul Bergin, Mathieu Crozet, Ronald Davies, Peter Egger, Victor Ginsburgh, Thierry Mayer, Marc Melitz, Giovanni Peri, the members of the economics seminars at CES-Ifo, ETR Zurich, Heriot-Watt University, the Paris School of Economics, the University of California at Davis, UCLA, and University College Dublin, and two anonymous referees for valuable comments.A hedge or hedgerow is a line of closely spaced shrubs and sometimes trees, planted and trained to form a barrier or to mark the boundary of an area, such as between neighbouring properties.Charles the Bald is recorded as complaining in 864, at a time when most official fortifications were constructed of wooden palisades, that some unauthorized men were constructing haies et fertés – tightly interwoven hedges of hawthorns.In parts of Britain, early hedges were destroyed to make way for the manorial open-field system.
Finally, emigrants have much to do with the role of ethnicity and trust in linguistic influence.
We construct new series for common native language and common spoken language for 195 countries, which we use together with series for common official language and linguistic proximity in order to draw inferences about (1) the aggregate impact of all linguistic factors on bilateral trade, (2) the separate role of ease of communication as distinct from ethnicity and trust, and (3) the contribution of translation and interpreters to ease of communication.
The results show that the impact of linguistic factors, all together, is at least twice as great as the usual dummy variable for common language, resting on official language, would say.
Around 20 million elm trees, most of them hedgerow trees, were felled or died through Dutch elm disease in the late 1960s.
Many other species are used, notably including beech and various nut and fruit trees.