The simple systems thus formed can then display emergent behaviour to produce more complex systems and thus other weather phenomena.Large scale examples include the Hadley cell while a smaller scale example would be coastal breezes. As a result, small changes to one part of the system can accumulate and magnify to cause large effects on the system as a whole.On Earth's surface, temperatures usually range ±40 °C (−40 °F to 100 °F) annually.
The Earth's weather system is a chaotic system; as a result, small changes to one part of the system can grow to have large effects on the system as a whole.A star's corona is constantly being lost to space, creating what is essentially a very thin atmosphere throughout the Solar System.The movement of mass ejected from the Sun is known as the solar wind.In June the Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the sun, so at any given Northern Hemisphere latitude sunlight falls more directly on that spot than in December (see Effect of sun angle on climate). Over thousands to hundreds of thousands of years, changes in Earth's orbital parameters affect the amount and distribution of solar energy received by the Earth and influence long-term climate. In some situations, the temperature actually increases with height.This phenomenon is known as an inversion and can cause mountaintops to be warmer than the valleys below.Human attempts to control the weather have occurred throughout history, and there is evidence that human activities such as agriculture and industry have modified weather patterns.Studying how the weather works on other planets has been helpful in understanding how weather works on Earth.Weather systems in the mid-latitudes, such as extratropical cyclones, are caused by instabilities of the jet stream flow.Because the Earth's axis is tilted relative to its orbital plane, sunlight is incident at different angles at different times of the year.Almost all familiar weather phenomena occur in the troposphere (the lower part of the atmosphere).Weather occurs primarily due to air pressure, temperature and moisture differences between one place to another.